Fennel

Foeniculum vulgare

Apiaceae

Location in our garden

Section A (Principal)

Habitus

Herbaceous. A robust, perennial, glabrous, glaucous,aromatic herb, up to 2 m tall.

Part Used

  • Leaves
  • Seeds
  • Fruit
  • Roots

Growing Requirements

  • Low Temperature

Habitat

  • Wetland
  • Riverbanks
  • Forest
  • Shrublands
  • Grassland

Overview

Fennel is known to be native to the Mediterranean region and has been widelynaturalized worldwide and has avoided cultivation. It is widely cultivated in theMediterranean region, Western and Central Europe, Southern and Eastern Asia,New Zealand, Ethiopia, South Africa, and the Americas for its fruits and leaves.Antiviral activity against Potato virus X, Tobacco mosaic virus and Tobaccoringspot virus is present in the essential oil.

Vernacular Names

Aneth doux (French), Saunf (India), Fenneru (Japanese), Phak s'i(Laos), Adas pedas (Malaysia), Samon-saba (Myanmar), Anis (Philippines), Funcho(Portuguese), Eneldo (Spanish), Phakchi-duanha (Thai).

Synonim:

Anethum foeniculum L.
Anethum dulce DC.

 

Agroecology

With a daily temperature range of 12-28 ° C andfrost sensitive, Fennel is suited to aMediterranean, sub-temperate climate regime.In the tropics, it is grown above 600 m in thehighlands. In full sun, it thrives in well-drained,light, moderately fertile soils, particularly insandy loams, where nuts need additionalwatering during the dry seasons.

Morphology

  • Stem - erect, terete, longitudinally striate,profusely branched at all heights,internodes hollow when older.
  • Leaves - basal and cauline leaves up to 15cm, broadly triangular-ovate in outline.
  • Flower - pale yellow, tiny, 2 mm across, incompound umbels, 4–10 cm across, bracts and bracteoles absent, sepals inconspicuous, petals yellow, ovate.
  • Fruit - an ovoid-cylindrical, usually slightlycurved schizocarp, 3-8.5 mm × 2-2.5 mm, lightgreen to yellow-brown, splitting at maturityinto 2 mericarps each with 5 prominentridges and oil-vittae between the ridges.

Chemical Constituents

  • Flower and unripe and ripe fruit oils of bitterfennel: Estragole, Fenchone, A-phellandrene.
  • Seed: Flavonoids, Terpenoids, Alkaloids,Phenols, Sterols, Estragole, Gallic acid, L-limonene.

Traditional Medicinal Uses

  • The fruits are generally recognized in many pharmacopeias as a stimulant,stomach, expectorant and carminative, and are officinal.
  • There are antioxidant properties of the ground spice and the essential oil.
  • There is also antifungal and antibacterial activity in the essential oil.It exhibits spasmolytic effects on the experimental smooth muscle.
  • In Indonesia, the fruit is traditionally used to give a good taste tomedicines in combination with the bark of the Alyxia species, but thecombination is also thought to be useful in the treatment of sprue (coeliacdisease).
  • Leaves are considered to be diuretic in India, fruit juice is provided toimprove eyesight, and hot fruit infusions are used to increase milksecretion and stimulate sweating.
  • Fennel is used against gastroenteritis, hernia, indigestion and abdominalpain in Chinese herbal medicine, to resolve phlegm and to improve milkproduction.

 

Cultivation

  • Propagated by seed. At nearly any time ofthe year, seeds germinate, but plants do notbloom until they are 18 months to 2 yearsold

Snapshot of Part Used

Reference Sources

  1. CABI. Foeniculum vulgare(fennel). https://www.cabi.org/ISC/datasheet/24271. 27-07-2020
  2. Lim, T. K. (2013). Edible Medicinal and Non-Medicinal Plants: Vol. 5, Fruits. Springer. DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-5653-3_2. pp. 36-59.
  3. Useful Tropical Plants. Foeniculum vulgare. http://temperate.theferns.info/plant/Foeniculum+vulgare. 7-12-2020